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A Brief Account of Political Development of the Muslim World
After Muhammad s.a.w., the leadership was assumed by the Khulafa ur Rasyidun (Abu Bakar, Omar, Uthman and 'Ali), which was replaced by dynastic rule of the Umayyah (Umayyad) muluk (kings) (660-750 A.D.). The 'Abbasiyyah (Abbassid) took over from 750 to 1258 A.D.
The Latter Abbasid period. The latter Abbasid period was a period of decadence from political point of view. In 756 Spain was lost from the Caliphate, which was followed by the establishment of independent states in North Africa, Egypt, Persia and Transoxiana, resulting in the formation of quasi-vassal dynasties such as the Saffarids (253-296 H/867-903 A.D.) and the Samandids (258-395H/874-999 A.D.). From the latter, the Ghaznavids (366-579H/976-1183 A.D.) developed.
The Idrisids were the first of the 'Alids to establish authority in North Africa (Morocco)(172-375H/788-985 A.D.) and the Zaydis follwed their kinsmen's example in the Yemen. Again, North Africa, which has been placed by Harun al Rashid under the rule of Ibn al Aglab (184-296H/800-909 A.D.) became independent in all but name. The supremacy of the Umayyads in Spain,the Tulunids (254-292H/868-905 A.D.) and the Ikshidites (323-358H/934-969 A.D.) in Egypt was a serious blow t the Caliphate.
In the first decade of the fourth century A.H. (Tenth Century A.D.) there were three caliphates or leaderships in Islamic community: the Abbassid Caliphate in Baghdad, the Fatimiyyah (Fatimid) Caliphate in North Africa and the Umayyad Caliphate in Spain. The Fatimid Caliphate ended in 1171 with the death of its last caliph, Mu'tadid. The Ummayyad Caliphate in Spain (Andalusia) was revived by 'Abd Al Rahman III in 316H/929 A.D. After the death of Ibn Amir, internal confusion predominated in Spain: the Berber generals shared the south, the slaves were masters of the east, and the rest of the land had fallen into the hands of either upstarts or a few noble families, while the chief cities, Cordova and Seville, adopted a republican form of government.
...................to be continued